Команды Linux для пользователей Linux, которые хотят изучить Linux

Интернет

Команды Linux для пользователей Linux, которые хотят изучить Linux Чтобы управлять сервером Linux, вы должны знать о командах Linux. Эта статья посвящена тем пользователям Linux, которые хотят изучить команды Linux. Команды разделены на 15 категорий, что позволит легче понять, какие команды следует использовать в конкретных условиях.

Это руководство может быть использовано новичками, а также опытными пользователями для справки.

Вы можете перейти к каждому разделу с помощью указателя, который расположен ниже. Если вам трудно понять какие-либо команды, пожалуйста, сообщите нам об этом.

Оглавление

  • 1. СИСТЕМА
  • 2. АППАРАТНОЕ ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ
  • 3. СТАТИСТИКА
  • 4. ПОЛЬЗОВАТЕЛИ
  • 5. ФАЙЛОВЫЕ КОМАНДЫ
  • 6. СВЯЗАННЫЕ С ПРОЦЕССОМ
  • 7. РАЗРЕШЕНИЕ ФАЙЛОВ
  • 8. СЕТЬ
  • 9. СЖАТИЕ / АРХИВЫ
  • 10. УСТАНОВКА ПАКЕТА
  • 11. ПОИСК
  • 12. ВХОД В СИСТЕМУ (SSH И TELNET)
  • 13. ПЕРЕДАЧА ФАЙЛОВ
  • 14. ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ДИСКА
  • 15. ОБХОД КАТАЛОГА

1. СИСТЕМА

$ uname –a                       => Display linux system information
$ uname –r                       => Display kernel release information
$ cat /etc/redhat_release        => Show which version of redhat installed 
$ uptime                         => Show how long system running + load 
$ hostname                       => Show system host name
$ hostname -i                    => Display the IP address of the host
$ last reboot                    => Show system reboot history 
$ date                           => Show the current date and time 
$ cal                            => Show this month calendar 
$ w                              => Display who is online 
$ whoami                         => Who you are logged in as 
$ finger user                    => Display information about user

2. ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ

$ dmesg                          => Detected hardware and boot messages 
$ cat /proc/cpuinfo              => CPU model
$ cat /proc/meminfo              => Hardware memory
$ cat /proc/interrupts           => Lists the number of interrupts per CPU per I/O device
$ lshw                           => Displays information on hardware configuration of the system
$ lsblk                          => Displays block device related information in Linux 
$ free -m                        => Used and free memory 
$ lspci -tv                      => Show PCI devices 
$ lsusb -tv                      => Show USB devices 
$ lshal                          => Show a list of all devices with their properties 
$ dmidecode                      => Show hardware info from the BIOS 
$ hdparm -i /dev/sda	         => Show info about disk sda 
$ hdparm -tT /dev/sda	         => Do a read speed test on disk sda
$ badblocks -s /dev/sda	         => Test for unreadable blocks on disk sda

3. СТАТИСТИКА

$ top                              => Display and update the top cpu processes 
$ mpstat 1                         => Display processors related statistics 
$ vmstat 2                         => Display virtual memory statistics 
$ iostat 2                         => Display I/O statistics 
$ tail -n 500 /var/log/messages    => Last 10 kernel/syslog messages 
$ tcpdump -i eth1                  => Capture all packets flows on interface eth1 
$ tcpdump -i eth0 'port 80'        => Monitor all traffic on port 80 
$ lsof                             => List all open files belonging to all active processes.
$ lsof -u testuser                 => List files opened by specific user
$ free –m                          => Show amount of RAM (
$ watch df –h                      => Watch changeable data continuously

4. ПОЛЬЗОВАТЕЛИ

$ id                                  => Show the active user id with login and group
$ last                                => Show last logins on the system 
$ who                                 => Show who is logged on the system(real user who logged in)
$ groupadd   admin                    => Add group "admin" (force add existing group)
$ useradd -c  "Sam Tomshi" -g admin -m sam  => Create user "sam" and add to group "admin"
$ userdel sam                         => Delete user sam (force,file removal)
$ adduser sam                         => Add user "sam" 
$ usermod                             => Modify user information(mostly useful for linux system admins)

5. ФАЙЛОВЫЕ КОМАНДЫ

$ ls –al                                => Display all information about files/ directories
$ pwd                                   => Show current directory path
$ mkdir directory-name                  => Create a directory
$ rm file-name                          => Delete file(be careful of using rm command)
$ rm -r directory-name                  => Delete directory recursively 
$ rm -f file-name                       => Forcefully  remove file
$ rm -rf directory-name                 => Forcefully remove directory recursively
$ cp file1 file2                        => Copy file1 to file2 
$ cp -r dir1 dir2                       => Copy dir1 to dir2, create dir2 if it doesn’t  exist
$ mv file1 file2                        => Move files from one place to another
$ ln –s  /path/to/file-name  link-name  => Create symbolic link to file-name 
$ touch file                            => Create or update file (timestamp change)
$ cat > file                            => Place standard input into file 
$ more file                             => Output the contents of file 
$ head file                             => Output the first 10 lines of file 
$ tail file                             => Output the last 10 lines of file 
$ tail -f file                          => Output the contents of file as it grows starting with the last 10 lines
$ gpg -c file                           => Encrypt file 
$ gpg file.gpg                          => Decrypt file

6. ПРОЦЕССЫ

$ ps                               # Display your currently active processes 
$ ps aux | grep 'telnet'           # Find all process id related to telnet process
$ pmap                             # Memory map of process (kernel,user memory etc)
$ top                              # Display all running processes 
$ kill pid                         # Kill process with mentioned pid id (types of signals)
$ killall proc                     # Kill all processes named proc
$ pkill processname                # Send signal to a process with its name
$ bg                               # Resumes suspended jobs without bringing them to foreground (bg and fg command)
$ fg                               # Brings the most recent job to foreground
$ fg n                             # Brings job n to the foreground

7. РАЗРЕШЕНИЕ ФАЙЛА

$ ls -al                      => Display all information about files/ directories
$ pwd                         => Show current directory path(simple but need every day)
$ mkdir directory-name        => Create a directory(create mutiple directory)
$ rm file-name                => Delete file(be careful of using rm command)
$ rm -r directory-name        => Delete directory recursively 
$ rm -f file-name             => Forcefully remove file
$ rm -rf directory-name       => Forcefully remove directory recursively
$ cp file1 file2              => Copy file1 to file2 
$ cp -r dir1 dir2             => Copy dir1 to dir2, create dir2 if it doesn't exist
$ mv file1 file2              => Move files from one place to another
$ ln -s /path/to/file-name link-name       => Create symbolic link to file-name 
$ touch file                  => Create or update file 
$ cat > file                  => Place standard input into file 
$ more file                   => Output the contents of file
$ head file                   => Output the first 10 lines of file
$ tail file                   => Output the last 10 lines of file 
$ tail -f file                => Output the contents of file as it grows starting with the last 10 lines
$ gpg -c file                 => Encrypt file 
$ gpg file.gpg                => Decrypt file

8. СЕТЬ

$ ifconfig –a                  # Display all network ports and ip address (set mtu and other all options,ifconfig now in deprecated network command)
$ ifconfig eth0                # Display specific  ethernet port ip address and details
$ ip addr show                 # Display all network interfaces and ip address(available in iproute2 package,powerful than ifconfig)
$ ip address add 192.168.0.1 dev eth0      # Set ip address
$ ethtool eth0                 # Linux tool to show ethernet status (set full duplex , pause parameter)
$ mii-tool  eth0               # Linux tool to show  ethernet status (more or like ethtool)
$ ping host                    # Send echo request to test connection (learn sing enhanced ping tool)
$ whois domain                 # Get who is information for domain
$ dig domain                   # Get DNS information for domain (screenshots with other available parameters)
$ dig  -x host                 # Reverse lookup host 
$ host google.com              # Lookup DNS ip address for the name (8 examples of host command)
$ hostname –i                  # Lookup local ip address (set hostname too)
$ wget file                    # Download file (very useful other option)
$ netstat  -tupl               # Listing all active listening ports(tcp,udp,pid) (13 examples)

9. СЖАТИЕ / АРХИВЫ

$ tar cf home.tar  home              # Create tar named home.tar containing home/ (11 tar examples)
$ tar xf file.tar                    # Extract the files from file.tar
$ tar czf  file.tar.gz  files        # Create a tar with gzip compression
$ gzip file                          # Compress file and renames it to file.gz (untar gzip file)

10. УСТАНОВКА ПАКЕТА

$ rpm -i pkgname.rpm                         # Install rpm based package (Installing, Uninstalling, Updating, Querying ,Verifying)
$ rpm -e pkgname                             # Remove package
Install from source
./configure
make
make install (what it is)

11. ПОИСК

$ grep pattern files                 # Search for pattern in files (you will this command often)
$ grep  -r pattern dir                # Search recursively for pattern in dir
$ locate file                        # Find all instances of file
$ find /home/tom -name 'index*'      # Find files names that start with "index"(10 find examples)
$ find /home -size +10000k           # Find files larger than 10000k in /home

12. ВХОД В СИСТЕМУ (SSH И TELNET)

$ ssh [email protected]                         # Connect to host as user (secure data communication command)
$ ssh  -p port [email protected]                # Connect to host using specific port
$ telnet host                           # Connect to the system using  telnet port

13. ПЕРЕДАЧА ФАЙЛОВ

scp
$ scp file.txt   server2:/tmp                   # Secure copy file.txt to remote host  /tmp folder
$ scp [email protected]:/www/*.html   /www/tmp    # Copy *.html files from remote host to current system /www/tmp folder
$ scp -r [email protected]:/www   /www/tmp        # Copy all files and folders recursively from remote server to the current system /www/tmp folder
rsync
$ rsync -a /home/apps /backup/                  # Synchronize source to destination
$ rsync -avz /home/apps [email protected]:/backup    # Synchronize files/directories between the local and remote system with compression enabled

14. ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ДИСКА

$ df –h                         # Show free space on mounted filesystems(commonly used command)
$ df -i	                        # Show free inodes on mounted filesystems
$ fdisk -l	                # Show disks partitions sizes and types(fdisk command output)
$ du -ah                        # Display disk usage in human readable form (command variations)
$ du -sh                        # Display total disk usage on the current directory
$ findmnt                        # Displays target mount point for all filesystem (refer type,list,evaluate output)
$ mount device-path mount-point  # Mount a device 

15. ПЕРЕМЕЩЕНИЕ ПО КАТАЛОГАМ

$ cd ..                              # To go up one level of the directory tree(simple & most needed)
$ cd	                             # Go to $HOME directory
$ cd /test                           # Change to /test directory

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